viernes, 8 de junio de 2012

Sintonización automatica de controladores PID

Automated Tuning of Simulink PID Controller Block

Introduction of the PID Tuner
PID Tuner provides a fast and widely applicable single-loop PID tuning method for the Simulink PID Controller blocks. With this method, you can tune PID parameters to achieve a robust design with the desired response time.
A typical design workflow with the PID Tuner involves the following tasks:
(1) Launch the PID Tuner. When launching, the software automatically computes a linear plant model from the Simulink model and designs an initial controller.
(2) Tune the controller in the PID Tuner by manually adjusting design criteria in two design modes. The tuner computes PID parameters that robustly stabilize the system.
(3) Export the parameters of the designed controller back to the PID Controller block and verify controller performance in Simulink.
Opening the Model
Take a few moments to explore the model.
Open the engine speed control model with PID Controller block

Design Overview
In this demo, you design a PI controller in an engine speed control loop. The goal of the design is to track the reference signal from a Simulink step block scdspeedctrlpidblock/Speed Reference. The design requirement are:
  • Settling time under 5 seconds
  • Zero steady-state error to the step reference input.
In this example, you stabilize the feedback loop and achieve good reference tracking performance by designing the PI controller scdspeedctrl/PID Controller in the PID Tuner.
Opening the PID Tuner
To launch the PID Tuner, double-click the PID Controller block to open its block dialog. In the Main tab, click Tune.

Initial PID Design
When the PID Tuner launches, the software computes a linearized plant model seen by the controller. The software automatically identifies the plant input and output, and uses the current operating point for the linearization. The plant can have any order and can have time delays.
The PID Tuner computes an initial PI controller to achieve a reasonable tradeoff between performance and robustness. By default, step reference tracking performance displays in the plot.
The following figure shows the PID Tuner dialog with the initial design:

Displaying PID Parameters
Click the Show parameters arrow to view controller parameters P and I, and a set of performance and robustness measurements. In this example, the initial PI controller design gives a settling time of 2 seconds, which meets the requirement.
The following figure shows the parameter and performance tables:

Adjusting PID Design in the PID Tuner
The overshoot of the reference tracking response is about 8 percent. Because the response performance is limited in many systems with time delays, you need to slow down response speed to reduce overshoot. Move the response time slider to the left to increase the closed loop response time. Notice that when you adjust response time, the response plot and the controller parameters and performance measurements update.
The following figure shows an adjusted PID design with an overshoot of zero and a settling time of 4 seconds. The designed controller effectively becomes an integral-only controller.

Completing the Design in the Extended Design Mode
To reduce the overshoot while maintaining the settling time of 2 seconds, you must tradeoff between controller performance (measured by settling time) and robustness (measured by overshoot). You can perform such a trade-off in the Extended design mode of the PID Tuner.
To switch to the Extended design mode, select Extended in the Design Mode dropdown menu in the toolbar. The following figure shows the PID Tuner in the Extended design mode with the integral only controller designed in the previous section:

There are two sliders in the Extended design mode. You can adjust performance with the Bandwidth slider. Large bandwidth results in fast response. You can also adjust robustness with the Phase margin slider. Large phase margin results in small overshoot. Move around both sliders to achieve the settling time of 2 seconds and zero overshoot. One way to achieve this is
  • Bandwidth of 1.23 rad/sec
  • Phase margin of 72 degree
The following figure shows the PID Tuner with these settings:

Writing the Tuned Parameters to PID Controller Block
After you are happy with the controller performance on the linear plant model, you can test the design on the nonlinear model. To do this, click Apply in the PID Tuner. This action writes the parameters back to the PID Controller block in the Simulink model.
The following figure shows the updated PID Controller block dialog:

Completed Design
The following figure shows the response of the closed-loop system:

The response shows that the new controller meets all the design requirements.
You can also use the SISO Compensator Design Tool to design the PID Controller block. When the PID Controller block belongs to a multi-loop design task. See the demo "Single Loop Feedback/Prefilter Compensator Design".
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